In the early 1800's, Brisbane was a penal colony of the British Empire. By 1830, there were 1000 convicts living here in barracks that they, themselves, constructed. Because of the large number of folks (i.e. Convicts as well as those supporting the penal colony) living in the Moreton Bay settlement, authorities felt that they needed a Commissariat store which "...procured, stored, and distributed goods, and rations - such as food, clothes, and tools - for the penal colony." So, in 1829, authorities had the convicts build one on the shores of Brisbane River at Queen's Wharf. Today, this is the oldest "occupied" building, and the second oldest, overall (after the Windmill in Wickham park, also built by convicts) in Queensland. By 1840, the penal colony no longer existed, but the Commissariat Store remained open. The Brisbane Historical Society now maintains the building as a museum, in which visitors can explore the history of the area's penal and colonial life. The building also serves as the Society's headquarters. Interestingly, the Commissariat is directly opposite the old Treasury building (now a hotel), and diagonally opposite one of the main casinos in Queensland (we wonder what the authorities of the penal colony would have thought of that?). Since we love history, this was a good visit for us.
The oldest "occupied" building in Qeensland, the Commissariat Store served as the center for supplies for Brisbane's penal colony.
The oldest "unoccupied" building is the Windmill at the top of Wickham park, also built by convicts (1828). Engineers soon realized that the wind here was not truly strong enough to make the windmill efficient, so they built a treadmill (run by convicts) to grind the flour.
The interior exhibits gives visitors a taste of what Brisbane's penal and colonial life was like.
Barracks life for the convicts was not very pleasant.
Stones for the building were taken from a local quarry while the mortar was created by heating crushed sea shells.
Those supporting the penal colony tried to make life as pleasant as possible with fine crafted furniture.
Of course, there were always those convicts who continued their nefarious ways , even in prison . Punishment for the most serious of crimes (e.g. Murder) included a trip to the gallows. This beam from the original penal colony shows that as many as three prisoners at a time could be hung.
Punishment for "lesser" crimes might include being shackled for days at a time, flogging...
...or time on the treadmill for the Wickham Park windmill (as depicted in this drawing).
Excavations of the area discovered this piece of the original wall around the penal colony complex.
General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Theater, escaped from the Phillippines, with his family, in early 1942, and came to Australia. The family moved into the top three floors of the Lennon Hotel on George St.,Brisbane, while the General established his headquarters into a building (today known as MacArthur Central) in the Central Business District. He had chosen this location for his headquarters because it was the largest and most modern office building in the city center at that time. Housed in the basement was "SIGSALY" - the most sophisticated speech encryption device of its era - so that MacArthur could communicate with Washington. At that time, the Allies' focus was on the war in Europe against Hitler, so the General had to fight constantly for resources. Today, the members of "The General Douglas MacArthur Brisbane Memorial Trust" maintains the office spaces he used as a museum dedicated to depicting how the war in the Pacific was run (from July of 1942 until November of 1944), as well as life in Brisbane during World War II. According to the Memorial Trust, the headquarters have been re-created accurately, even though all of the office furniture had been removed after the war and its provenance disrupted (the Trust asserts that it has all been authenticated, but we could not see any "Certificates of Authenticity" on display). We were disappointed in learning that, while the country as a whole acknowledges that U.S. Forces were instrumental in protecting Australia from a Japanese invasion, the Memorial Trust makes no effort to thank Americans by offering a reduction in its admission pricing, especially for seniors, while those seniors from Brisbane were given a reduced price. With that being said, it was still important for us to visit this museum.
The main entrance into MacArthur Central. Once inside, you take the elevator to the eighth floor, where his headquarters were located.
A memorial plaque has been placed on the outside of the building, next to the main entrance, indicating why this building is important.
Wartime photo of MacArthur's arrival in Brisbane, with his Chief of Staff, General Sutherland.
commissioned during his stay in Brisbane, this portrait of MacArthur hangs in his eighth floor headquarters.
According to the Memorial Trust, this is an exact re-creation of MacArthur's office as it appeared during his time in Brisbane. For us, the provenance was questionable, as the Trust admitted that all the furniture had been removed after the war and had to be "found" again for the museum. The Trust asserts that it all has been authenticated, but we could not see find any "Certificates of Authenticity" on display anywhere.
MacArthur was noted for wearing this elaborately decorated cap while smoking his corncob pipe.
Old photo of MacArthur going to work.
Just down the hall from MacArthur's office was this conference table where strategies for handling the war in the Pacific were hammered out.
Rare photo of the General relaxing with his son, Arthur.
While we can't draw if our lives were to depend on it, we do love art (or, at least some art). So, being in Brisbane was a delight for us on multiple levels. In July of 1999, the city council enacted the "Art Built-In Policy" which stated that any new government building costing over two hundred and fifty thousand dollars MUST allocate two percent of its budget for public art. But, they did not stop there. Brisbane further promotes art through several community projects; "Art Force" allows local artists to display their original works for one year on traffic signal boxes throughout Brisbane; "Brisbane Canvas" provides for a range of commissioned art to be painted on walls and bridge supports; and "Public Art Trails", a series of walking trails within the Central Business District focusing on different themes ( e.g. The Brisbane River, contemporary art, cultural heritage, etc.). Even "graffiti" is promoted (somewhat), but only in designated areas. All of the art depicted in the attached photos were found along the city streets; out in the open for all of the public to enjoy (or not). We were delighted at how much Brisbane supports art. It made our explorations of the city that much more enjoyable, and there were many pleasant surprises. Once we became aware of this forum for public art, we were more open to noticing it. Many people just passed them by, but we rejoiced in taking it all in. We must give credit to Tina, one of Brisbane's Volunteer greeters, who brought this to our attention during a free walking tour. If it had not been for her, we might not have been as cognizant of all of this wonderful street art.
"The Pillars" are part of the Brisbane Canvas project of commissioned art...
...and includes some fantastc art of indigenous peoples.
It also includes wonderful wall paintings such as "Beastman" depicted here...
...as well as this piece by Finton MaGee...
...and this piece in South Brisbane.
Other pieces are more contemporary in nature, such as these giant stainless steel balls mad from traditional Australian pressure cookers ( which we found in several places around the city).
Then there were these mechanical looking animals that resembled something from the Terminator movies.
Just down the street from St. John's Cathedral is this piece, entitled "The Guardian" created by Cezary Stulgis.
Even some of the architecture lent itself to a public display of art. We found this "Butterfly" building (our term for it) along the Queen Street pedestrian promenade.
Embedded in the sidewalk of the Riverside Walkway in South Bank were a series of colorful mosaics.
Also in the South Bank Parklands area was this tightrope cyclist sculpture (the cyclist looked like it was made of paper marche, but we couldn't be sure).
Outside of the Gallery of Modern Art is this sculpture by Michael Parekowhai entitled "The World Turns."
Boomerangs are iconic symbols of indigenous peoples of Australia. This larger-than-life version sits at the entrance to Musgrave park, the traditional meeting place for the aboriginal tribes of Brisbane.
Situated at the lower end of Wickham Park are several bronze statues, including this pyramid.
A number of lamp posts within the Central Business District (CBD) have sculptures embedded in them, such as this one on Adelade Street, with a bat. As soon as we saw the first one, we found ourselves looking at every lamppost we came around to see what surprises we could find there.
Constructed completely from recycled materials, this oversized kangaroo is next to the Roma Street bus and train terminal.
This Nautalis shell sculpture on the Queen Street pedestrian promenade is part of the Public Art Trail.
Located on the edge of King George Square (opposite City Hall) is this tribute to three notables of Brisbane's history; author Henry Hoey Davis; suffragette Emma Miller; and Chief Justice Sir Charles Lilly.
Ever since our arrival in Brisbane, locals have recommended a visit to "South Bank" - so it piqued our interests. Located on the southern side of the Brisbane River (thus its name), this area was the original meeting place for the Turrbal and Yuggera aboriginal peoples. By the 1850's, it had become THE focal business center of the early European settlers. However, the devastating flood of 1893 forced businesses to relocate further north, to what is now the Central Business District (CBD). As a result, the South Bank area began to deteriorate into derelict boarding houses and vaudeville theaters.. Public sentiment to rejuvenate the area began to rise in the 1970's, culminating in South Bank playing host to World Expo 88. Today, it is a wonderful conglomeration of attractions which include Street beaches, a riverwalk promenade, rainforest trail, the Wheel of Brisbane, and much more. An estimated eleven million visitors come here each year ( eleven million and two this year). What a great place! We came to South Bank at least three times during our stay in Brisbane. There is that much to see!
View of South Bank and the Wheel of Brisbane from Victoria Bridge.
Streets Beach (named after its sponsor, Streets Ice Cream) is a man-made beach recreation spot, covering approximately 6000 square feet. The 12,000 cubic feet of sand that surrounds the award winning pool complex, comes from the Rous channel in Morton Bay...
...and includes a playground for the kids.
One of the most beautiful parts of South Bank (we think) is the 2/3 mile long Arbour - comprised of 443 curling steel columns covered by Bourganvilleas.
Along the river promenade is the rainforest trail that takes you through lush greenery.
In the center of South Bank is the Epicurious Garden of herbs and spice plants.
This Nepalese Peace Pagoda is the only remaining International exhibit from World Expo 88 and one of only three such pagodas outside of Nepal (the others being in Munich and Osaka).
Perhaps the most popular tourist attraction in Brisbane is not actually in the Central Business District itself, but rather close to three miles outside; Mt. Coot-Tha. We hopped aboard the #471 bus at King George Square for the half-hour ride to this location. At 941 feet above sea level, on the eastern edge of the Taylor Range, it is the highest peak in the State of Quuensland. The Turrbal aboriginal peoples used to collect honey from the sting-less bees here: thus the name (Coot-Tha means "Place of Honey"). Early European settlers called this mountain "One Tree Hill" after they had cleared all the trees, save for one lonely Eucalyptus , to construct their homes. During World War II, anti-aircraft guns and searchlights were positioned at the summit to protect Brisbane. The military also constructed bunkers in the surrounding area to store ammunition. Mt. Coot-Tha is now part of the National Park Reserve that includes the 138 acre Botanic Gardens (1970), the Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium (1978), and a plethera of hiking and bicycling trails - many of which are adorned with aboriginal art. We spent a wonderful day exploring some of Mt. Coot-Tha's many attractions (although we probably could have spent several more days here to really do it justice). We must say that the views of Brisbane from the summit are truly spectacular!
Welcome to Mt. Coot-Tha
The summit lookout provides a bird's eye view of the city of Brisbane...
...and provides compass points orientation for the surrounding area.
...the views are breathtaking...
...except when some of the tourists get in the way!
And not to lose an opportunity to make a buck, they built a lovely restaurant right at the top of the mountain.
As mentioned earlier, some of the hiking trails include original aboriginal art...
...as well as remnants of the ammunition bunkers the military put here during World War II.
A short distance from the summit is the Brisbane Botanic Gardens , part of which includes this rainforest dome...
...with many beautiful tropical flowers...
...and stunning Lilly pond.
Next to the rainforest dome was this touch of home, the American Cacti house.
One of the highlights of this attraction are the Japanese Gardens....
...and the design is amazing!
This is where we met some local residents...
...including a ton of spiders...
...some of which seemed quite large.
There is a lot of bamboo along the trails.
When we first came across this tree, we were stunned to see these large bats out in the open...
...only to discover upon closer inspection that they were not real, but rather artworks that were attached to the tree. How disappointing!
Being a coastal community, Brisbane has had a long history of ties with the sea. So, it seems logical that there would be a Maritime Museum here. Founded in 1971, the Queensland Maritime Museum is situated on the south bank of the Brisbane River , on the site of the original 1880's dry dock that serviced over five thousand ships during its operational life ( 1881 to 1972) - nearly one hundred forty during World War II alone. While it was fun to follow the history of Queensland's relationship with maritime shipping, the most amazing part of this visit was the opportunity to explore, up close, the many actual historical vessels on display in the shipyard. One such "floating" exhibit is the 1928 tug - "Forceful" - the only remaining, working, coal-fired steam-tug. Also on display here is "Ella's Pink Lady", the thirty-four foot yacht in which Jessica Watson, at age 16, became the youngest person to sail solo around the world (2009-2010). The one exhibit that, perhaps, attracts the most attention is the HMAS Diamantina, the only remaining River Class Frigate in the world. Restored to its 1945 condition, visitors can climb aboard and fully explore this World War II warship. For a brief time, while exploring different interests on the Diamantina, Lorraine and I got separated. It became an "interesting" experience trying to re-find each other. We could hear each other calling out, but because of echoing effects, it was hard to tell what direction the calls came from. We had a good laugh once we reunited. This maritime museum was an amazing experience! If you visit Brisbane, try to find the time to explore this attraction.
Queensland's Maritime Museum is situated at the southern end of the South Bank recreational area of Brisbane (a short ten minute walk from Victoria Bridge and the Wheel of Brisbane).
The main building contains static displays of the many historical events tieing Brisbane to the sea...
...including re-creation of second-class accommodations aboard passenger ships...
...examples of ship's radio transmitters-receivers (circa 1922) ...
...and a few smaller size water crafts. During my formative years, my father had boats and belonged to a yacht club in Winthrop, Massachusetts. A similar boat to this one was moored just a few yards from my father's boat. So this brought back a lot of memories.
The Bulwer Island Lighthouse was moved to the museum's location in 1983 following the lighthouse's deactivation
Jessica Watson, at the age of sixteen, became the youngest person to sail solo around the world in this yacht, "Ella's Pink Lady."
Built in 1928, the "Forceful" is the last remaining coal-fired tugboat in Queenland. Because of maintenance issues trying to keep the tug seaworthy, the "Forceful" no longer ties visitors on excursions up and down the river. However, the engines still work.
The 438 foot long, 60 foot wide, dry dock serviced over 5000 ships during its 91 year operational life...
...today, the dry dock is home for this light ship...
...and the HMAS Diamantina, the only remaining River Class Firgate in the world.
Part of the Diamantina's historical significance is exemplified by this plaque on the Quarterdeck.
While the original concept of an Anglican Cathedral in Brisbane began with William Webber, Third Bishop of Brisbane, in 1859, actual construction didn't begin until 1901, when the Duke of Cornwall (later to become King George V) laid the foundation stone. This was to replace an earlier parish church that was temporarily acting as the cathedral (known as a pro-cathedral) between 1854 and 1904. Because of financial constraints, construction was done in three stages; the first stage between 1906 and 1910; the second stage between 1964 and 1968; and the third stage between 1989 and 2009 (when visiting the cathedral today, you can distinquish the three stages by the color variations in the stonework). Plans called for the entire structure to be built from Australian sandstone. In order to ensure enough sandstone was available for this project, Cathedral authorities went out and bought their own quarry just a few miles outside the city. The architecture of the structure resembles many of the 12th and 13th century Cistercian churches in Europe. Embedded in the floor in front of the altar are two ancient mosaic pieces from the Holy Land; one from a 6th century synagogue in Jericho; and the other from 6th century Christian Church at Gaza. Today, in addition to being a place of worship, the Cathedral also serves as a major center for the arts and music, with its very own orchestra, the Camerata of St. John's. During our visit to the Cathedral, one of the volunteers took time to show us around, pointing out some highlights, including a beautiful stained glass window presented to the church by the American people following a visit from President Obama (knowing that we were Americans, he thought we would get a kick out of seeing this, and we did). I realize that we've said this before, but it is worth repeating; back in 2014, when we started this adventure, we were advised to take the opportunity to visit whatever religious structure was open, regardless of its denomination, as each would be equally beautiful and offer insights into the culture of the surrounding area that we might not get from just visiting secular attractions. We've followed that advice and have found it as valuable today as it was then. So we'll continue to pass it on.
St. John's Cathedral is located on Anne Street in Brisbane, just a few blocks from the Central Business District (CBD).
A view of the main altar through the Quire.
Sixth century mosaic piece from a synagogue in Jericho...
...and the sixth century mosaic piece from a Christian Church in Gaza. Both pieces were uncovered during World War I and brought back to Brisbane by the Australian Light Horse Regiment.
Exquisically carved, this pulpit, we felt, is one of the nicest pieces of art we've seen.
Originally constructed in London, in 1909, St. John's organ is one of the largest cathedral organs in Australia.
There are many magnificent stained glass windows throughout the Cathedral...
...but this one held special significance for us. It was given to the Cathedral by the American people, following one of President Obama's visits to Australia.
Beside St. John's is St. Stephen's old cathedral, now known as the Pugin Chapel.
Official portrait of St. John's own orchestra; the Camerata of St. John's.
Dominating King George Square in the Central Business District (CBD) is Brisbane's City Hall. We'be made a habit of exploring the main administrative buildings of each city we've visited because they always seem to be full of interesting local background history. Brisbane's City Hall did not disappoint in this respect. Built on a swamp, known as the "horse pond", in the 1920's, it was officially opened in 1930. Covering nearly two acres, with a clock tower (which was modeled after St. Mark's Campanile in Venice) that soared 298 feet above the ground, it was the tallest building in Brisbane until building height restrictions were eased in 1967. Because of its marshy beginnings, the building had been sinking since it opened. As a result , a massive three year restoration project began in 2009. Most of the city's administrative offices have moved to an adjacent building, leaving only the Lord Mayor's office, the Deputy Mayor's office, and the Council Chambers in the original building. In spite of this, city hall is still one of the busiest in Brisbane, with many concerts, special functions, and meetings being held in. Any of its reception rooms. One of the things we liked was that the city provided free tours of this building (anything free is a bonus for us). Also located within city hall is the Museum of Brisbane, which includes a 15 minute tour up through the clock tower (both of which are free also). The clock tower tour takes you up to the observation deck almost three hundred feet above the city, in the oldest manually operated elevator in Australia. While views from here are somewhat restricted by the many tall buildings that have sprouted up around city hall, they still are impressive. Part of this tour included seeing the backsides of the four massive clock faces, the largest in Australia. While visiting city hall, make sure to enjoy some light refreshments in the Shingle Inn Cafe on the ground floor. This is the oldest restaurant in Brisbane.
Brisbane's City Hall, with its 298 foot tall clock tower, dominates King George Square in the CBD.
The square is dedicated to King George, V (1910 to 1936), grandson of Queen Victoria, following his death in 1936.
The sculptured pediment above the entrance , know as the "Tympanum", was carved by noted Brisbane sculptor, Daphne Mayo, in the early 1930's.
Most of the Italian marble comprising the main foyer was taken from the same quarry used by Michelangelo for his"David."
City Councillors meet in this chamber every Tuesday at 2:00 pm and the meetings are open to the public.
Considered by many to be the busiest space in the building, the main auditorium just underwent a resurfacing of its floor.
Estimated to be worth five million dollars, the Father Henry Willis Organ is the largest of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere .
Modeled after the Pantheon in Rome, the auditorium is dominated by the huge dome, which is lighted by over 8500 LED's.
Take the oldest manually operated elevator up the clock tower....
...to view some of the city from the observation deck...
...and to get a glimpse of the backside of the four-foot diameter clock faces.
City Hall's third floor hosts the Museum of Brisbane, depicting the history of the city.
On the ground floor is the Shingle Inn Cafe; the oldest in Brisbane (1936)....
Some of the tea cakes that made the Shingles Inn Cafe famous.
A short 2.5 hour north east flight brought us from Melbourne to Brisbane, Capitol of the State of Queensland, the third most populated (and one of the oldest) city in Australia. This area has been the ancient homeland of the Jagera and the Turrbal indigenous peoples, who had named it "Mian-Jin" ("Place shaped like a spike"). The first European settlement in Brisbane (1825) was a penal colony. By 1848, free settlers were making their homes here. During World War II, General Douglas MacArthur placed his Southwest Pacific headquarters in Brisbane.
This is a very vibrant city. Two things we noticed right off following our arrival; Brisbane is a lot warmer than Melbourne;.... And the black flies are nowhere near as prevalent (nor harassing) as they were in Melbourne. Our apartment in the Herston section of the city is lovely and only a short ten minute bus ride from the Central Business District (CBD). We are looking forward to our stay here.
We have arrived!
Our apartment is quite comfortable and only ten minutes from downtown by bus (which stops right outside our door).
Located in King George Square, City Hall is one of the main tourist attractions in Brisbane. In addition to administrative offices for the city, it also houses The History of Brisbane Museum, and impressive clock bell tower (with free tours), and the oldest restaurant in town, The Shingle Inn Cafe.
On one of the many hills overlooking the city is the Old Wickham Park Windmill (1828) built and run by convicts of the penal colony here . One of the best (and cheapest) restaurants in the city is located just across the street, in the Old Mill Hotel. It's daily lunch menu is only $9.90 per person and the food is excellent.
The man-made beach area along Southbank is a popular cooling off spot during the summer.
By law, two percent of the annual budget for the city must be devoted to street art and some of it is quite interesting!
Just as Dunkin Donuts is one of the more popular watering holes in America, Doughnut Time is an Australian landmark. This picture does not do justice for the size of these things. They are huge! (A meal on their own).
Speaking of which, this local decided to visit our apartment, not realizing how close he came to being "invited" for dinner!
It's time to wrap up our visit to Melbourne. What a wonderful city (in spite of the black flies harassing us most days)! There is just so much to see here. It reminded us a lot of the United States, with its diverse ethnic cultures and many immigrant neighborhoods.
On the other hand, this also made it difficult for us to find anything "uniquely Australian" (except the accents of some) here on Melbourne. Everyone has been extremely friendly. We can't tell you how many times, as we were looking at our street map, that locals came up to us, completely on their own, without our asking, and offered to point us in the right direction. And, we'll say this again, Melbourne is a very walkable city!! Granted, we are walkers (6 to 10 miles per day on average), but, that being said, so many of the major tourist attractions in the city are within a mile of the Central Business District (i.e. CBD - a term with which we've become so familiar trying to plan our travels). From the many beautiful botanical gardens, to Federation Square, to Victoria Market, to the Shrine of Rememberance, and the many small alleys and lanes (some devoted to graffiti so that they do not show up on CBD buildings) with their own unique stories...everything was right there. We loved it!
The one thing that we were not enthralled with, was the price of food....cherries were $44.90/kilo (2.25 lbs) ... Grapes were $12.90/kilo...tomatoes were $6/kilo... And beef was as much as $38/kilo. Part of this was due to wages...an entry level clerk at a McDonalds (for instance) got a starting salary of $15-$18 per hour,... With it going up to $25-$30 per hour on weekends, ... And as much as $50 per hour on holidays. It's crazy!
During our stay in Melbourne, we learned a few things that might make your visit a little easier, and we'd like to share some of them with our followers:
- After a long flight into Australia, taking a cab directly to the apartment, while expensive (the cost to us was $52 Australian Dollars plus tip), it allowed us to relax and recover much quicker than trying to figure out the public transportation system. Once we got to know the city, taking public transportation back to the airport was much cheaper ($32 Australian Dollars for both of us). We were able to catch a free shuttle to the central bus station from a hotel around the corner from our apartment. The airport express bus ran from this central station. Much more convenient but the logistics of doing this on the way in, after the long plane ride, would have been too frustrating.
-Bring a fan with you to Melbourne if you come during during their summer months (i.e. starting in December) as the black flies can be maddening.
- There are free walking tours of the city, offered by the Visitors Information Center in Federation Square (and they start there) which are limited to 10-12 people per tour. These are "totally free" (no tipping allowed), as they are sponsored by the city of Melbourne. Avoid the so-called "free tours" that start at the State Library of Victoria just down the street from Federation Square. They allow up to 30 participants per tour and "suggest" a $20 tip at the end.
- If you are planning on purchasing expensive souvenirs (e.g. Prairie hats or UGGs), price them out at the expensive stores, but then go to Victoria Market where you'll probably find them much cheaper.
- Within a specific zone of the Central Business District (CBD), the trams are free. Once outside of this zone (even if you got on the tram within the free zone) the ride will cost you $7.50. So become familiar where to get on and off in order to keep the ride free.
- There are many parks and gardens within the city. Make sure to visit as many as time allows as each is equally beautiful.
- Make sure to bring a hat and strong sun screen with you from home, as prices for these items are expensive in Melbourne.
- For specific tours outside the city (e.g. The Great Ocean Road, or Phillips Island, where the March of the Little Blue Penquins occurs), we recommend going with "A Tour With A Difference." They are well organized, quite professional, will pick you up and drop you off at your front door, and they have a maximum of 8-10 folks per tour. Other companies are more expensive and will fill up a large bus with three times as many people..
- We found that the fruits and vegetables we bought at Victoria Market, while cheaper than those bought at the Woolworth's grocery stores, did not last as long.
-Finally, watch the weather in Melbourne carefully. We experienced cool temperatures, rain, and then hot and humid weather, all within the same day.
I guess it is time to say good bye to Melbourne and move on to Brisbane. We hope what we've presented here will be helpful in planning your own trip to Melbourne. G'day mate!
Carl and Lorraine Aveni are two retirees planning on traveling through Europe for at least one year.